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It is usually slow and inefficient to mold thermoplastics using the compression molding

techniques described above. In particular, it is necessary to cool a thermoplastic part

before removing it from the mold, and this requires that the mass of metal making up the

mold also be cooled and then reheated for each part.

Plastic Injection

is a method of overcoming this inefficiency. Injection molding resembles

transfer molding in that the liquefying of the resin and the regulating of its flow is

carried out in a part of the apparatus that remains hot, while the shaping and cooling are

carried out in a part that remains cool. In a reciprocating screw injection molding

machine, material flows under gravity from the hopper onto a turning screw. The mechanical

energy supplied by the screw, together with auxiliary heaters, converts the resin into a

molten state. At the same time, the screw retracts toward the hopper end. When a sufficient

amount of resin is melted, the screw moves forward, acting like a ram and forcing the

polymer to melt through a gate into the cooled mold. Once the plastic has solidified in the

mold, the mold is unclamped and opened, and the part is pushed from the mold by automatic

ejector pins. The mold is then closed and clamped, and the screw turns and retracts again

to repeat the cycle of liquefying a new increment of resin. For small parts, cycles can be

as rapid as several injections per minute.

    One type of network-forming thermoset, polyurethane, is molded into parts such as

automobile bumpers and inside panels through a process known as reaction

PEEK Injection Molding
, or RIM. The two liquid precursors of polyurethane are a

multifunctional isocyanate and a prepolymer, a low-molecular-weight polyether or polyester

bearing a multiplicity of reactive end-groups such as hydroxyl, amine, or amide. In the

presence of a catalyst such as a tin soap, the two reactants rapidly form a network joined

mainly by urethane groups. The reaction takes place so rapidly that the two precursors have

to be combined in a special mixing head and immediately introduced into the mold. However,

once in the mold, the product requires very little pressure to fill and conform to the mold

—especially since a small amount of gas is evolved in the injection process, expanding the

polymer volume and reducing resistance to flow. The low molding pressures allow relatively

lightweight and inexpensive molds to be used, even when large items such as bumper

assemblies or refrigerator doors are formed.

    The importance of Mold

Design And Making
on the productivity of a tool is often overlooked in the design of

a mold. Several areas in the mold design exist where the molder must work with the mold

builder in order to optimize the productivity of the mold. A good standard for mold

productivity is saleable parts out of the press per hour. Cycle time and part quality are

the critical aspects of saleable parts per hour. The areas of design found to be most

important for increased productivity are the sprue bushing, runners and gates, hot

manifold, venting, cooling, and ejection. While each of these items is specific to the mold

being built, good design for each can contribute to improved part quality and optimum cycle


    Too often the mold maker is left to decide the sizes of the sprue, runners, and gates

and only when running the first samples does the molder learn that the sizes are not

optimal. Much of this can be resolved beforehand by following the principles of runner and

gate design found in the Injection Molding Handbook, as well as other reference materials.

Again, runners sized too small affect the heat and pressure of the

Plastic Mold

and runners too large may slow the cycle for cooling time and cause unnecessary


    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining is a manufacturing process in which pre-

programmed computer software dictates the movement of factory tools and machinery. The

process can be used to control a range of complex machinery, from grinders and lathes to

mills and CNC routers. With

CNC Machining Service
, three-dimensional cutting tasks can be accomplished in a

single set of prompts.

    The CNC process runs in contrast to — and thereby supersedes — the limitations of

manual control, where live operators are needed to prompt and guide the commands of

machining tools via levers, buttons and wheels. To the onlooker, a CNC system might

resemble a regular set of computer components, but the software programs and consoles

employed in CNC PEEK Machining Servicedistinguish it from all other forms of


    When a CNC system is activated, the desired cuts are programmed into the software and

dictated to corresponding tools and machinery, which carry out the dimensional tasks as

specified, much like a robot. In CNC programming, the code generator within the numerical

system will often assume mechanisms are flawless, despite the possibility of errors, which

is greater whenever a CNC machine is directed to cut in more than one direction

simultaneously. The placement of a tool in a numerical control system is outlined by a

series of inputs known as the part program.

    With a numerical control machine, programs are inputted via punch cards. By contrast,

the programs for CNC POM Machining Services are fed to computers through small

keyboards. CNC programming is retained in a computer’s memory. The code itself is written

and edited by programmers. Therefore, CNC systems offer far more expansive computational

capacity. Best of all, CNC systems are by no means static since newer prompts can be added

to pre-existing programs through revised code.

    Rubber materials that are harder are more resistant to compression set, the permanent

deformation of a material after prolonged compressive stresses at a given temperature and

deflection. If a rubber reaches a compression set, the seal loses its ability to return to

its original thickness when the compressive stress is released. Leakage may occur, and seal

failure can result. Chemical resistance can be critical – and complicated. That’s why it

’s important to identify all the chemical agents to which your rubber product will be

exposed. For example, if you’re in the mobile equipment industry, you may need engine bay

insulation that can resist both fuel oil and cleaning chemicals. The

Rubber Seals on fuel tanks may

need to resist both diesel fuel and biodiesel blends.


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